Publications-
Subject Matter Expertise  

At Smultea Sciences, scientific rigor is at the heart of our work. As recognized experts in the industry, we serve as subject matter experts (SMEs), with over 100 publications on marine mammal behavior and anthropogenic impacts. When possible, we publish and share data, collaborating with our clients and community to further collective scientific knowledge.

Journal publications, research, and white papers are shared here. Click on the image to download a pdf (when available). 

2021

IR Extrinsic Factors.jpg
Review of Night Vision Technologies for Detecting Cetaceans from a Vessel at Sea
Dr. Mari Smultea, Dr. Gregory K. Silber, Paul Donlan, Dagmar Fertl, and David Steckler

Prepared for South Fork Wind

Gray Whale Photo David Weller.png
Co-occurance of gray whales and vessel traffic in the North Pacific Ocean
Gregory K. Silber, David W. Weller, Randall R. Reeves, Jeffrey D. Adams, Thomas J. Moore

Endangered Species Research, 44: 177-201, 2021

 

2019

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Vessel operations in the Arctic, 2015–2017
Gregory K. Silber, Jeffrey D. Adams

Frontiers in Marine Science 6:573

2018

2018 Smultea et. al .png
Behavior of Risso’s dolphins (Grampus griseus) in the Southern California Bight: An aerial perspective
Smultea, M.A., K. Lomac-MacNair, C.S. Nations, T. McDonald, and B. Würsig

Aquatic Mammals 44(6):653-667

2017

2017 Bacon et. al mixed-species.png
Mixed-species associations of marine mammals in the Southern California Bight, with emphasis on Risso’s dolphins (Grampus griseus)
Bacon, C.E., M.A. Smultea, D. Fertl, B. Würsig, E.A. Burgess, and S. Hawks-Johnson

Aquatic Mammals 43(2):177-184

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Cetacean sightings and acoustic detections during a seismic survey off Nicaragua and Costa Rica, November-December 2004
Holst, M., M.A. Smultea, W.R. Koski, A.J. Sayegh, G. Pavan, J. Beland, and H.H. Goldstein

Revista De Biologia Tropical 65(2):599-611

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Projecting marine mammal distribution in a changing climate
Silber, G.K., M.D. Lettrich, P.O. Thomas, J.D. Baker, M. Baumgartner, E.A. Becker, P. Boveng, D.M. Dick, J. Fiechter, J. Forcada, K.A. Forney, R.B. Griffis, J.A. Hare, A.J. Hobday, D. Howell, K.L. Laidre, N. Mantua, L. Quakenbush, J.A. Santora, K.M. Stafford, P. Spencer, C. Stock, W. Sydeman, K. Van Houtan, and R.S. Waples

Frontiers in Marine Science 4:413

2017 Smultea et. al cetatean mother-calf
Cetacean Mother-calf Behavior Observed from a Small Aircraft off Southern California
Smultea, M.A., D. Fertl, C.E. Bacon, M.R. Moore, V.R. James, and B. Würsig

Animal Behavior and Cognition 4(1):1-23. 

2017 Tetra Tech and Smultea Sciences Aug
August 2017 Survey Report for New York Bight Whale Monitoring Aerial Surveys
Tetra Tech and Smultea Environmental Sciences

Aquatic Mammals 44(6):653-667

2016

2016 Garcia Chavez et. al .png
First systematic humpback whale studies in the vulnerable state of Guerrero, southwest Mexico
Garcia Chavez, A. J., T. Hanks, A. Mellín, , C. Auladell Quintana,C., P. Chevallard Navarro, V. Pouey-Santalou, V., J. de Weerdt, A. Kaulfuss, M.Smultea, K.Audley

Presented at Society for Mexican Marine Mammalogy Conference, La Paz, Baja California Sur, May 2016

2016 Jefferson et. al Harbor Porpoises.p
Harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) recovery in the inland waters of Washington Estimates of density and abundance from aerial surveys, 2013-2015
Jefferson, T.A., M.A. Smultea, S.S. Courbis, and G.S. Campbell

Canadian Journal of Zoology 94(7):505-515

2016 Smultea et. al polar bears.png
Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) behavior and group dynamics as observed from an aircraft off southern California 2008-2013
Lomac-MacNair, K., and M.A. Smultea

Animal Cognition and Behavior 3:1-21

2016 Lomac-MacNair et. al socio sexual.p
Socio-sexual and probable mating behavior of Cook Inlet beluga whales observed from an aircraft
Lomac-MacNair, K.S., M.A. Smultea, M.P. Cotter, C. Thissen, and L. Parker

Marine Fisheries Review 77(2):32-39

2016 Smultea and Lomac-MacNair assessing
Assessing ‘observer effects’ from a research aircraft on behavior of three Delphinidae species (Grampus griseus, Delphinus delphis, and Orcinus orca)
Smultea, M.A., and K. Lomac-MacNair

Wildlife Biology in Practice 12(2):75-90

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Behavioral Ecology of Cetaceans
Mari A. Smultea

PhD Dissertation, Texas A&M University

2015

2015 Jefferson et. al Southern californi
Southern California Bight marine mammal density and abundance from aerial surveys, 2008-2013
Jefferson, T.A., M.A. Smultea, and C.E. Bacon

Journal of Marine Animals and Their Ecology 7(2):14-30

2015 Lomac-MacNair et. al blue whale beh
Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) behavior and group dynamics as observed from an aircraft off southern California
Lomac-MacNair, K., and M.A. Smultea

Animal Cognition and Behavior 3:1-21

2015 Lomac-MacNair et. al blue whale beh
Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) behavior and group dynamics as observed from an aircraft off Southern California Methods/Analyses
Lomac-MacNair, Kate & Smultea, Mari & Bredvick, Jessica

Poster Presentation

2015 Moore et. al Southern California Bi
Southern California Bight marine mammal density and abundance from aerial surveys 2008-2013
Moore, M., T.A. Jefferson, M.A. Smultea, C.E. Bacon

30-31 January 2015. Newport Beach, California. (Poster Presentation)

2015 Pouey-Santalou et. al .png
Preliminary evidence suggesting habitat partitioning among bottlenose, pantropical spotted and rough-toothed dolphins off undescribed Guerrero, southwestern Mexico Winters 2014-2015
Pouey-Santalou, V., A. Kaulfuss, J. de Weerdt, A.J. Garcia Chavez, M. Smultea, and K. Audley

13-18 December 2015. San Francisco, California. (Poster Presentation)

2015 Smultea et. al behavioral ecology o
Behavioral ecology of Risso’s dolphins (Grampus griseus) in the Southern California Bight based on aerial focal follows
Smultea, M.A., S. Courbis, S. Howlin, C. Bacon and T. McDonald

30-31 January 2015. Newport Beach, CA. (Poster Presentation)

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Puget Sound marine mammal aerial surveys 2013-2015
Smultea, M., C. Bacon, D. Steckler, M. Cotter, and S. Courbis
2015 Smultea et. al puget sound marine w
Puget Sound Marine Waters Overview 2014, Puget Sound Marine Ecosystem Monitoring Program Marine Mammals Harbor Porpoise, Aerial Surveys II
Smultea, Mari & Jefferson, Thomas & Courbis, Sarah & Steckler, David
2015 Steckler et. al Effectiveness of ma
Effectiveness of marine mammal monitoring and mitigation during seismic surveys using modern PSO software (Mysticetus™) across multiple observation platforms
Dave Steckler, Mari Smultea, Kate Lomac-MacNair, Greg Campbell, and Sarah Courbis, Entiat River Technologies, Smultea Environmental Sciences

Aquatic Mammals 44(6):653-667

2014

2014 Bacon et. al beahvior and group cha
Behavior and group characteristics differ in mixed-species associations (MSA) of cetaceans in the Southern California Bight
Bacon, C.E., M.A. Smultea, B. Würsig, D. Fertl, W.M. von Zharen, K. Lomac-MacNair, and J. Bredvik

Poster Presentation at Southern California Marine Mammal Workshop 2014. 31 January-1 February 2014. Newport Beach, California.

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Southern California Bight marine mammal density and abundance from aerial surveys, 2008-2013
Jefferson, T.A., M.A. Smultea, and C.E. Bacon

Journal of Marine Animals and Their Ecology 7(2):14-30

2014 Packard et. al behavior.png
Behavioural profiles of African bovids (Hippotraginae)
Packard, J.M., K.E. Loonam, C.R. Arkenberg, H.M. Boostrom, T.L. Cloutier, E.J. Enriquez, A. Eyres, H. Haefele, T.R. Salzar, M.A. Smultea, and K. Snodgrass

Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research 2(3):82-87

2014 Smultea et. al behavior.png
Behaviors of Southern California cetaceans: Observations from a small aircraft 2008-2013
Smultea, M.A., C.E. Bacon, B. Würsig, and K. Lomac-MacNair

Poster presentation at 107th Annual Meeting of the Southern California Academy of Sciences. 2-3 May 2014. Camarillo, California

2014 Smultea and Jefferson changes.png
Changes in Relative Occurrence of Cetaceans in the  Southern California Bight: A Comparison of Recent Aerial  Survey Results with Historical Data Sources
Smultea M.A., and T.A. Jefferson

Aquatic Mammals 40(1):32-43

2014 Smultea et. al focusing on behavior
Focusing on behavioral data gathering and analysis: Highlighting video capabilities from the air or shore
Smultea, M.A., C. Bacon, and B. Würsig

Oral Presentation made during panel session on Basic Behavioral Research: Techniques and Analyses held on 31 January 2014, Southern California Marine Mammal Workshop 2014. 31 January-1 February 2014. Newport Beach, California

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Puget Sound Marine Mammal Aerial Surveys 2013-2015: The Return of Harbor Porpoises
Mari A. Smultea, Tom Jefferson, Sarah Courbis, and Dave Steckler

Report for the Puget Sound Marine Waters 2014 Overview Report

2014 Smultea et. al rare mixed-species.p
Rare Mixed-Species Associations Between Sperm Whales and Risso's and Northern Right Whale Dolphins Off the Southern California Bight Kleptoparasitism and Social Parasitism
Smultea, M.A., C.E. Bacon, K. Lomac-MacNair, F. Visser, and J. Bredvik

Northwestern Naturalist 95(1):43-49

2014 Smultea et. al resource selection f
Resource selection function analyses: Assessing habitat use relative to behavior and resource characteristics/ availability for five common marine mammal species in the Southern California Bight
Smultea, M.A., T. McDonald, S. Howlin, D. Steckler, and K. Lomac-MacNair

Oral Presentation at 107th Annual Meeting of the Southern California Academy of Sciences. 2-3 May 2014. Camarillo, California

2014 Smultea et. al visual and passive .
Visual and passive acoustic marine mammal monitoring in northern U.S. and international Chukchi Sea open waters in Summer-Fall 2013
Smultea, M.A., M. Blees, M. Larson, J. Cate, S. Simpson, C.E. Bacon, and D.J. Steckler

Poster Presentation at , Alaska Marine Science Symposium. 20-24 January 2014. Anchorage, Alaska

2014 Lomac-MacNair et. al Marine mammal
Marine mammal monitoring in central and upper Cook Inlet from vessel, land and aerial platforms during spring, summer and fall of 2012 and 2013
Lomac-Macnair, K., M. Smultea, L. Kendall, S. Wisdom, N. Opinsky, and C. Bacon

Poster Presentation at 2014 Alaska Marine Science Symposium. 20-24 January 2014. Anchorage, Alaska

2013

2013 Bacon et. al comparison of blue and
Comparison of blue and fin whale behavior and group characteristics in the Southern California Bight (SCB) 2008-2012
Bacon, C., M.A. Smultea, and B. Würsig

Poster Presentation at 27th European Cetacean Society Annual Conference. 8-10 April 2013. Setubal, Portugal

2013 Bacon et. al mixed-species associat
Mixed-species associations seen in the Southern California Bight during aerial surveys 2008-2012
Bacon, C.E., M.A. Smultea, B. Würsig, V. James, and M. Moore

Poster Presentation at Southern California Marine Mammal Workshop 2013. 1-2 February 2013. Newport Beach, California

2013 Biondi et. al longitudinal comparis
Longitudinal comparisons of digital photography of marine mammals from aircraft and shore
Biondi, J., M.A. Smultea, C.E. Bacon, G. Gailey, O. Sychenko, B. Würsig, S. Bonizzoni, and G. Bearzi

Poster Presentation at Southern California Marine Mammal Workshop 2014. 31 January-1 February 2014. Newport Beach, California

2013 Norris et. al sights and sounds in
Sights and sounds in the sky Integrated acousticvisual aerial monitoring of marine mammal behaviors using sonobuoys and videography
Norris, Tom & Steckler, David & Smultea, Mari & Würsig, Bernd & Dominelli, Talia & Hom-Weaver, Cory Ann & Bacon, Cathy

Aquatic Mammals 44(6):653-667

2013 Packard et. al behavioral syndromes
Behavioral Syndromes in African Bovids Assay Techniques for Population Planning
Packard, J.M., K.E. Loonam, C.R. Arkenberg, H.M. Boostrom, T.L. Cloutier, E.J. Enriquez, A. Eyres, H. Haefele, T.R. Salzar, M.A. Smultea, K. Snodgrass

Biodiversity Stewardship Report No. BS13.03. Texas A&M University, College Station, TX.

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Aerial surveys conducted in the SOCAL OPAREA from 01 August 2012 to 31 July 2013 – Final report
Smultea, Mari & Bacon, Cathy

Aquatic Mammals 44(6):653-667

2013 Smultea et. al behaviour, group cha
Behavior, group characteristics, density and habitat-use patterns of marine mammals off Southern California during 2008-2012 aerial surveys
Smultea, M.A., C.E. Bacon, T.A. Jefferson, B. Würsig, M. Moore, and V. James

Poster Presentation at Southern California Marine Mammal Workshop 2013. 1-2 February 2013. Newport Beach, California

2013 Smultea et. al comparisons of the b
Comparisons of the behavioral ecology of three delphinid and three baleen whale species: risks and rewards of group living
Moore, M., M.A. Smultea, B. Würsig, K. Lomac-MacNair, and J. Bredvik

Poster Presentation at 21st Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals. 13-18 December 2015. San Francisco, California

2013 Smutlea et. al visual acoustic.png
Visual-acoustic survey of cetaceans during an academic seismic study in the southeast Caribbean Sea, April-June 2004
Smultea, M.A., M. Holst, W.R. Koski, S. MacLean, A.J. Sayegh, C. Fossati, S. Stoltz, H.H. Goldstein, J. Beland, and S. Yin

Caribbean Journal of Science 47(2-3):273-283

2013 Lomac-MacNair et. al Assessing 'obs
Assessing 'observer effect' from an aerial platform during marine mammal focal observations on Risso's dolphins, short-beaked common dolphins and killer whales in the Southern California Bight
Lomac-MacNair, K., M.A. Smultea, and C.E. Bacon

Poster Presentation at Society of Marine Mammalogy Biennial, Dunedin, New Zealand

2012

2012 Bacon et. al rare sighting.png
Rare southern California sperm whale sighting
Bacon, C., and C. Johnson

Currents (Navy’s Environmental Magazine) Fall 2012:44-47. (based on aerial surveys conducted by Smultea Environmental Sciences)

2012 James et. al Bryde's Whale sighting
Bryde's whale (Balaenoptera brydeiedeni) sightings in the Southern California Bight
James, V., M.A. Smultea, A.B. Douglas, C E. Bacon, T.A. Jefferson and L. Mazucca

Poster Presentation at Southern California Marine Mammal Workshop. 3-4 February 2012. Newport Beach, California

2012 Lomac-MacNair Diurnal behavior.png
Diurnal behavior and group size patterns of common dolphins (Delphinus sp.) during 2008-2010 aerial surveys off San Diego, California
Lomac-MacNair, K., M.A. Smultea, C.E. Bacon, and M. Blees

Poster Presentation at Southern California Marine Mammal Workshop. 3-4 February 2012. Newport Beach, California

2012 Moore et. al got milk.png
Got milk? Aircraft observations provide rare glimpses into whale calf nursing and back riding
Moore, M., M.A. Smultea, C.E. Bacon, B. Würsig, and V. James

Poster Presentation at Southern California Marine Mammal Workshop. 3-4 February 2012. Newport Beach, California

2012 Norris et. al aerial acoustic-behav
Aerial acoustic-behavioral monitoring using sonobuoys deployed from observation aircraft: Coupled acoustic and visual observation from slow flying observation planes
Norris, T., M.A. Smultea, B. Würsig, C. Bacon, V. James, and M. Moore

Poster Presentation at Southern California Marine Mammal Workshop. 3-4 February 2012. Newport Beach, California

2012 Smultea et. al Bryde's whale sighti
Bryde’s Whale (Balaenoptera brydei edeni) Sightings in the Southern California Bight
James, Vanessa & Smultea, Mari & Douglas, Annie & Bacon, Cathy & Jefferson, Thomas & Mazzuca, Lori

Poster Presentation at Southern California Marine Mammal Workshop, January, 2012, Newport Beach, CA

2011

2011 Bacon et. al .png
Comparison of blue and fin whale behavior, headings and group characteristics in the Southern California Bight during Summer and Fall 2008-2010
Bacon, C.E., M.A. Smultea, B. Würsig, and K. Lomac-MacNair

Poster Presentation at 19th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals. 27 November-2 December 2011. Tampa, Florida

2011 Mazuca et. al .png
Rare sightings of Bryde’s whales (Balaenoptera brydeiedeni) in the Southern California Bight
Mazzuca, L., M.A. Smultea, A.B. Douglas, and C.E. Bacon

Poster Presentation at 19th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals. 27 November-2 December 2011. Tampa, Florida

2011 Smultea et. al Behavior and group c
Behavior and Group Characteristics of Marine Mammals in the Southern California Bight 2008-2010
Smultea, M.A., C.E. Bacon, D. Fertl, and K. Ampela

Journal name, volume pages

2011 Smultea and Bacon.png
Bryde's whale (Balaenoptera edeni brydei) sightings in the Southern California Bight
Smultea, M.A., C.E. Bacon, D. Fertl, and K. Ampela

Journal name, volume pages

2011 Smultea et. al changes in abundance
Changes in abundance, density and diversity of marine mammals in the Southern California Bight 1998-1999 vs. 2008-2010
Smultea, M.A., T.A. Jefferson, J. Black, K. Lomac-MacNair, and C.E. Bacon

Poster Presentation at 19th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals. 27 November-2 December 2011. Tampa, Florida

2011 Lomac-MacNair et. al Diurnal behavi
Diurnal behavior and group size patterns of common dolphins (Delphinus sp.) during 2008-2010 aerial surveys off San Diego, California
Lomac-MacNair, K., M.A. Smultea, C.E. Bacon, and M. Blees

Poster Presentation at 19th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals. 27 November-2 December 2011. Tampa, Florida

2010

2010 Smultea et. al aerial surveys.png
Aerial survey monitoring for marine mammals off southern California in conjunction with US Navy major training events 2008-2010
Smultea, M.A., C. Bacon, and R. Merizan

Oral Presentation, American Cetacean Society San Diego Chapter Monthly Meeting. July 2010. La Jolla, California

2010 Smultea et. al history of bowhead.p
History of bowhead surveys in the US Beaufort and Chukchi seas 1975-2009
Smultea, M.A., D. Fertl, D.J. Rugh, and C. Bacon

Poster Presentation at Mini- Alaska Marine Science Symposium at the NOAA Alaska Fisheries Science Center. 16-17 February 2010

2010 Smultea et. al polar bears.png
Polar bear reactions to icebreakers
Smultea, M.A., D. Fertl, G.A. Green, and R.A. Rowlett

Poster Presentation at Alaska Marine Science Symposium 2010. 18-22 January 2010. Anchorage, Alaska

2010 Smultea et. al rare sightings V2.pn
Rare sightings of a Bryde’s whale (Balaenoptera edeni) and sei whales (B. borealis) (Cetacea Balaenopteridae) northeast of Oahu
Smultea, M.A., T.A. Jefferson, and A.M. Zoidis

Pacific Science 64(3):449-457

2010 Smultea et. al results of aerial su
Results of aerial surveys conducted in conjunction with US Navy training exercises off southern California 2008/2009
Smultea, M.A., K. Lomac-MacNair, J.R. Mobley, Jr., L.M. Mazucca, and C. Bacon

Poster Presentation at Southern California Marine Mammal Workshop. 9-10 January 2010. Newport Beach, California

2009

2009 Smultea.png
Preliminary list of systematic surveys involving bowhead whales in the U.S. Beaufort and Chukchi Seas 1975-2008
Smultea, M. A.

Pages 63-81 in Bowhead Whale Feeding Ecology Study (BOWFEST) in the Western Beaufort Sea: 2008 Annual Report

2008

2008 Smultea et. al.png
An Unusual Reaction and Other Observations of Sperm Whales Near Fixed-Wing Aircraft
Smultea, M.A., J.R. Mobley, G.L. Fulling, and D. Fertl

Gulf and Caribbean Research 20(1):75-80

2008 Zoidis et. al.png
Vocalizations produced by humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) calves recorded in Hawaii
Zoidis, A.M., M.A. Smultea, A.S. Frankel, J.L. Hopkins, A.D. Whitt, and D. Fertl

Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 123(3):1737-1746

2007

2007 Rankin et. al.png
A visual sighting and acoustic detections of minke whales, Balaenoptera acutorostrata, in nearshore Hawaiian waters
Rankin. S., T.F. Norris, M.A. Smultea, C. Oedekoven, E. Silva, A.M. Zoidis, and J. Rivers

Pacific Science 61(3):395-398

2005

2005 Norris et. al .png
A Preliminary Acoustic-visual Survey of Cetaceans in Deep Waters around Niihau, Kauai, and Portions of Oahu, Hawaii from Aboard the R/V Dariabar February 2005
Norris, T.F., M.A. Smultea, A.M. Zoidis, S. Rankin, C. Loftus, C. Oedekoven, J.L. Hayes, and E. Silva

Aquatic Mammals 44(6):653-667

1996

1996 Mobley et. al .png
Fin whale sighting north of Kaua'i, Hawai'i
Mobley, J.R., Jr., M. Smultea, T. Norris, and D. Weller

Pacific Science 50(2):230-233

1995

1995 Acevedo and Smultea.png
First records of humpback whales including calves at Golfo Dulce and Isla del Coco, Costa Rica, suggesting geographical overlap of northern and southern hemisphere populations
Acevedo, A., and M.A. Smultea

Marine Mammal Science 11(4):554-560

1995 Smultea and Wursig.png
Behavioral reactions of bottlenose dolphins to the Mega Borg II oil spill, Gulf of Mexico 1990
Smultea, M.A., and B. Würsig

Aquatic Mammals 21(3):171-181.

1994

1994 Bowles and Smultea V2.png
Relative abundance and behavior of marine mammals exposed to transmissions from the Heard Island Feasibility Test
Bowles, A.E., M. Smultea, B. Würsig, D. DeMaster, and D. Palka

Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 96(4):2469-2484.

1994 Rowlett et al V2.png
The first photographic documentation of a northern right whale off Washington State
Rowlett, R.A., G.A. Green, C.E. Bowlby, and M.A. Smultea

Northwestern Naturalist 75(3):102-104

1994 Smultea.png
Segregation by humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) cows with a calf in coastal habitat near the island of Hawaii
Smultea, M.A

Canadian Journal of Zoology 72(5):805-811

1992

1992 Smultea .png
Temporal and spatial segregation of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) off the Big Island of Hawaii: The influence of behavioral and ecological constraints
M.A. Smultea

Master’s thesis, Texas A&M University

1991

1991 Bowles at al V2.png
Observations on the abundance and behavior of marine mammals exposed to the Heard Island source transmissions
Bowles, A.E., M. Smultea, B. Würsig, D.P. DeMaster, and D. Palka

Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 90(4, Part 2):2329-2330

1990

1990 Silber and Smultea.png
Harbor porpoises utilize tidally-induced waves
Silber, G.K., and M.A. Smultea

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 89(3):139-142

1987

1987 Kaufman et al.png
The use of lateral body coloration for photographic identification of east Australian (Area V) humpback whales
Kaufman, G.D., M.A. Smultea, and P. Forestell

Cetus 7:5-13